October 22, 2018

The Stained Glass Windows of the Cathedral Church of St. George, Kingston, Ontario

Based on a text prepared by Dr. Phil Rogers

Additional text from David Tulett, Shirley Spragge, Rosalind Walton, the files of Robert McCausland Ltd., and Peter Gower.

Editorial Committee (2002): Conti Hewitson, Phil Rogers, Jean Hill, Peter Gower, Joyce Waddell-Townsend

All of the windows in the enlarged Cathedral Church of 1892 were new, but none of them survived the fire of 1899. While the Parochial Association noted on 13 February 1899 that “the fire seems to have disorganised us all,” other groups were more positive. The Vestry Council on 3 January 1899 moved that “The Cathedral should be rebuilt in a style equal to that of the late building and (pledged) itself to raise the money necessary for that purpose.”

But the provision for money for replacement windows seems to have been for clear windows only, like some remaining in the narthex and in the galleries. The Vestry Council minute book records in 1901 an expenditure of $500 for “Windows.” This amount may be compared to the expenditure of $17,535.90 for materials and labour in the repair of the walls. The Sexton’s annual salary at this time was about $275, and Canon Starr’s was about $1,000. A later notation says that the window amount is “in dispute.” The first coloured glass window was installed in 1902, and the most recent in 2002, and all but one are memorials.

Early in the 20th Century, the Vestry Council concerned itself with issues of the value of the new windows. Thus in 1906 it passed a resolution putting the question of insuring the windows in the hands of the Finance Committee, “with power to act,” and the next year it appointed the Dean and Wardens a committee to deal with the “Protection of the Stained Glass Windows.”

Window #1: North West Nave

Christ in the Temple

Dedicated on Easter Sunday, March 30 1902, this window was given by the Alexander Gunn family in memory of Ernest Grant Gunn, who died in 1882, aged 5. Alexander Gunn had been a Postmaster of Kingston. The window probably replaced one lost in the fire of 1899, and the plaque below the window may refer to the original window. It was designed and executed by the Hobbs Manufacturing Company of London and Toronto, in the manner of the Tiffany Glass Company of New York City. They developed new techniques for colouring. These meant brighter colours as more light was let through. (See a note after Window #26). The original leading was weak and some of the paint was not fired on properly. The window was restored by Robert McCausland Ltd. in 1980 at a cost of $4200.

The main panel emphasises the joy of finding the12-year-old Jesus in the Temple by Mary and Joseph (Luke 2: 43-51) who thought that he was lost. The window is based on JJJ Tissot’s watercolour “Jesus Found”.

In the lunette above, a pair of horn-rimmed panels frame a wreath of green leaves with red berries (probably the evergreen holly, a traditional symbol of eternal life) which frames a Solomonic star superimposed on a Maltese cross. The star alludes to the wisdom of Solomon and may refer to the last verse of the story, “And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature and in favour with God and man.”

Window #2: North Centre Nave

Saints Peter and Paul

This window was installed between 1909 and 1913, and was restored in 2001. It was manufactured by Clayton and Bell. It is dedicated “In loving memory of James Scott Born Oct.1830 Died in Toronto Mar. 23rd 1902”. He had been a much respected Superintendent of the Sunday School.

Saint Peter and Saint Paul, shown in the main panel, were the early church’s most important leaders and preachers.

The lunette emphasizes this. “The Word of the Lord endureth for ever” (1 Peter 1:25, from Isaiah 40:8) is above St. Peter and “Let the word of Christ dwell in you” (Colossians 3:16) is above St. Paul.

The lower panels show St. Peter receiving the keys to the kingdom of heaven and Paul (as Saul) blinded on the road to Damascus (Acts 9: 1-9).

Window #3: North East Nave

Jesus Walks on the Water

This window was given by the widow of Charles Gildersleeve, who lived in the limestone house opposite the Cathedral at the South West corner of King and Johnson Streets. It is dated 1906 and was restored in 2002. The window is dedicated “In memory of Charles Fuller Gildersleeve Born 1833 Died 1906.” He was a Mayor of Kingston and Rector’s Warden in 1865-1866. He was Chairman of the Building Committee following the 1899 fire, was also on

the Finance Committee and was a Delegate to Synod. Because of Charles Gildersleeve’s connections with lake navigation, Mrs. Gildersleeve

requested the introduction of a boat in the window. Robert McCausland Ltd. preferred this as their topic, but also suggested ‘Our Lord appearing to his disciples on the Sea’, or ‘Christ preaching from the Ship by the Lake.’ Robert McCausland himself painted the window shortly before his death, and the company regards it as one of their most important windows. The main panel shows Peter crying to Jesus to save him as he loses faith in his ability to walk on the water (Matthew 14: 22-33; Mark 6: 45-52; John 6: 15-21). Here Peter and Jesus stand in a trough of the waves, with the fishing boat and three followers in the background.

The lunette shows two angels kneeling to face each other across a statuary vase from which grow stylized leaves. They hold a pink banner with the quotation “In my distress I called upon the Lord and cried unto my God” (2 Samuel 22:7) (22.5 reads “The waves of death were all around me; the waves of destruction rolled over me”)

The lower panels show St. Matthew holding an open book and a quill pen, and St. Mark holding a scroll. The keystones of the architectural frames are the evangelists’ traditional symbols: an angel for Matthew and a lion for Mark. The St. Matthew panel is “In memory of Henry Born 1785 Died 1851” who was People’s Warden in 1848, and one of the early boat owners and navigators on the Lake. The St. Mark panel is “In memory of Sarah Born 1801 Died 1861.” This panel was already in place when the main window was installed. They were Charles Fuller Gildersleeve’s parents. We presume that there had been a window dedicated to Henry lost in the 1899 fire (see Window #24).

Window #4: North West RCA Gallery

King David

This window was “Given to the Glory of God by Elizabeth Amelia Ralph Barber” and is the only coloured glass window in the Cathedral which is not a memorial. It is a Robert McCausland Ltd. window, designed by Edward Low. It was installed in 1980, and cost $6000.

The original suggestion was for a window which would portray Psalm 150. Dean Baker wrote, ‘it seems to me a very fruitful subject with its trumpets, lutes, harps (not the big Welsh variety of course) timbrel, strings, pipe, cymbals etc. Perhaps some human beings playing such instruments with the occasional angel doing the same.’

The final version shows King David and a group of human instrumentalists and singers. The instruments represented are, from left to right, a portative (portable) organ, tambourine, gittern or lute, valveless long horn and cymbals. One figure does not hold a visible instrument. The window is inscribed with the words of the last verse of the last psalm “Let every thing that hath breath praise the Lord” (Psalm 150: 6), linking the window’s subject with the traditional but mistaken attribution of authorship of the psalms to David.

Window #6: Centre of RCHA Gallery

St. Cecilia

Dedicated on November 3rd 2002, this window was designed by Robert McCausland Ltd. It was “given by Clyde and Naomi Markham Tothe Glory of God and in loving memory of their parents Alison and Laura Kelland (and) Harold and Veronica Markham.”

Alison was an organist and played for many years in Canso, Nova Scotia, and at other churches. After his retirement he played in Port Dover, Ontario. Laura played for her church in Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. Harold was President of the choir at St. Paul’s, Bloor Street, Toronto, and sang in the choir at St. Anne’s,Toronto. Veronica played in Codys, New Brunswick. Harold and Veronica’s sons are both active musicians. Ralph is an organist, choirmaster and music teacher in Richmond Hill, and Clyde plays for the noon service on Wednesday at St. George’s.

The window shows St. Cecilia, the patron saint of music (and of the blind) at a two manual keyboard, with two children singing. Cecilia was a Roman noble, probably martyred In Rome in 220. Her day is November 22nd.

The window is dominated by the figure of St. Cecilia, seated at a portative organ. Dressed in a gown and overgarment in shades of purple, blue and rose, she has tri-coloured wings, as if she were an angel. The architectural space which forms the background of the window has a tiled floor and on the wall a series of blind niches broken by a large window through which may be seen leafless trees. Cecilia is framed by that window. The two- manual portative organ which she plays rests on stocky legs resembling barley-twist. Facing Cecilia on the viewer’s left is a child in sandals, wearing a short yellow tunic and red overgarment, who offers the saint a bouquet of orange daisy-like flowers. On the viewer’s right another child, dressed in a white tunic and a purple and rose overgarment, kneels before the saint holding an open book of music. Cecilia, a legendary Roman martyr according to a 6th-century passio, has been associated with music and musicians since the 16th century, probably because the passio refers to instruments playing (organis cantantibus) and to Cecilia singing to God in her heart during her marriage ceremony.

Window #8: South East RCA Gallery

Jesus and the Centurion

A brass plaque states that “This window, is dedicated to the Glory of God and in loving memory of Arthur Flower March Died 8th February 1898 Lieutenant Royal Canadian Artillery, who was for seventeen months voluntary choirmaster in this Cathedral.” Two hymn verses are also on the plaque. The window was installed before 1913, and is one of five in the Cathedral manufactured by the Hobbs Manufacturing Company of London and Toronto. (The others are # 1, 11, 13 and 14). Its original cost may have been $1000. The paint on the faces and hands was originally not fired in properly, and in time it flaked. This window was restored by Robert McCausland Ltd. in 1980 at a cost of $2450. It was further repaired in 1989 correcting a problem in the earlier restoration.

It depicts the Centurion begging Jesus to heal his servant (Matthew 8: 5-13). The poses of Jesus and the Centurion mirror each other, as Christ pronounces his servant healed. The lunette above shows the crown and cannon of the Royal Canadian Artillery. The bottom border of the window carries the quotation: “I am a man under authority having soldiers under me. Matthew VIII [9.]” March’s military office makes the subject matter of the window appropriate for him; his musical activities and those of King David link this with window #4.

The Apse Windows

The apse windows have been the subject of controversies and errors. Originally our present windows 11, 14 and 13 (the Magi, Crucifixion and Three Marys) were the central three, as their predecessors had been when the apse was first built in 1892. You can see them in the 1895 photograph. By 1915, there were five windows in the apse. At each end there was plain glass, but the centre five showed the life of Christ: Annunciation, Nativity, Crucifixion, Resurrection and Transfiguration. But the Dean of the Cathedral in 1942, the Very Reverend William Craig did not like them. He called them “very bad” and in fact would have liked to have them removed from the building entirely (except for the Annunciation).1

In his initial proposal to redesign the apse windows he wanted to place the new “Christus Rex” in the centre, flanked by the four evangelists, two on each side. Two windows, the Annunciation (which he liked) and the Transfiguration (which was dedicated to the Aunt of his predecessor), would be moved to each end and replace the plain glass windows. He believed that this scheme - placing the gospel sources on either side of the “Gospel” itself was better than the scheme of the career of Jesus represented by the older windows. The Watkins memorial windows would be removed.

But he found that “prejudice” was “too strong to simply get rid of”them2. He was able only to move Magi” and “Three Marys” to the extreme left, and “Crucifixion” to the extreme right. The new “Christus Rex” went into the centre, with the new “Empty Tomb”

on its right. “The Annunciation” was on the left of “Christus Rex,” and only “The Transfiguration” remained in its original place.

The two Haworth windows are inscribed incorrectly. The inscriptions are the reverse of the donor’s intent, which was to memorialize her husband in the central window, and her daughters in the other. Further, Ethelwyn was married, and the inscription was intended to carry her husband’s name, Macarow! Dean Craig clearly (and no doubt rightly) held Haworth responsible for the errors, but Mrs. McGowan apparently either didn’t notice the mistake or declined to comment on it.

In 1989, Dean Baker and Neil MacLennan, Surveyor of the Fabric, decided that, when the windows were taken out for repair, they would again be reordered. Their reasoning is not exactly known, but it seems to be more to do with looks rather than with any attempt to restore what once was - hence the proposal to reverse window #10. “Christus Rex” stayed in the centre; Hobbs “Magi” and “Three Mary’s returned to their original positions. “Annunciation” went from prominence to obscurity on the extreme left, with Haworth’s “Empty Tomb” next to it. The two right-hand windows changed places, bringing Hobbs “Crucifixion” next to his “The Empty Tomb,” and “Transfiguration” to the extreme right, where Craig had wanted it 50 years before!

1 Letter to Peter Haworth, 14 January 1941, 2 ibid.

Before 1942 empty Annunciation Magi Crucifixion Three Marys Transfiguration empty
1942- 1990 Magi Three Marys Annunciation Christus Rex Empty Tomb Transfiguration Crucifixion
After 1990 Annunciation Empty Tomb Magi Christus Rex Three Marys Crucifixion Transfiguration

 

Window #9: Extreme left in the apse

The Annunciation

This window was installed in 1913 and designed and manufactured by Robert McCausland Ltd. The window is dedicated to Henry Patton, D.C.L., (1806-1874), Rector of Oxford and Marlborough (1829-1838), Kemptville, (1839-1845), Cornwall (1846-1871) where he was also Rural Dean and Archdeacon of Ontario, and St. Thomas’s, Belleville (1871-1874). It continues the visual narrative of the Life of Christ started in the earlier windows 11,14 and 13. It was originally next to the “Adoration of the Magi.”

Here, the Blessed Virgin Mary receives the Angel Gabriel’s announcement (Luke 1: 26-38) that she will bear the Son of God. The window strikingly fails to contain the standard iconographic elements normally associated with the event - lilies and books or sewing - although the essential element of the dove of the Holy Spirit is present.

Peter Haworth

Peter Haworth was born in Lancashire, England in 1889, and was educated at the London School of Art, where he trained under Annis Bell. He came to Canada and taught at Central Technical School, Toronto, from 1923 to 1955, becoming the Head of the Art Department in 1928.

He first designed stained glass in 1924, for the Ontario Agricultural College in Guelph. His work can be found in the Anglican Cathedrals of Toronto and Montreal; in Bishop Strachan School Chapel, Toronto; in Holy Blossom Temple, Toronto; in Timothy Eaton Memorial and Yorkminster Baptist Churches; and in numerous secular buildings throughout Canada.

He usually worked with the firm of Pringle and London of Toronto, which became Luxfor Studios in 1958. He also designed the surround of the copy of Holman Hunt’s “The Light of the World” which was mounted in 1937 on the west wall of the Cathedral and was given in memory of Robert Roe Fisher Harvey, organist from 1896 to 1935. We do not know how he came to be associated with the Cathedral.

Window #10: 2nd from the left in the apse

The Empty Tomb

This window was designed and executed by Peter Haworth in April 1942. It is “A.M.D.G. given in loving memory of George Alfred McGowan by his wife Katherine McGowan” (A.M.D.G.: Ad maiorem Dei gloriam : To the greater glory of God). In common with the other Haworth windows (#12 and 18), this window has a red cross on a gold ground in the upper right corner, a gold crown on a red ground in the upper left, and a green frame.

It was originally installed to the immediate right of “Christus Rex.” When it was moved in 1989, there was some discussion about reversing the window so that the figures looked inward. It was also the intention of Mrs. McGowan that this window should be dedicated to her daughters, but somewhere a mistake was made.

Window #11: 3rd from the left in the Apse

The Adoration of the Magi

This window was installed before 1913 to replace a window lost in the 1899 fire. The window is dedicated “In memory of John Watkins,” a Warden of the original Blue Church, 1822-23. Watkins’ benefactions included both St. George’s and the Kingston General Hospital, where the central block of the building bears his name. It was executed by Edward Hobbs of London and Toronto, and is one of five of his windows in the Cathedral. The others are #1, 8, 13 and 14.

The subjects of the three parts of the original window were the Nativity, the Crucifixion and the Ascension, with medallions below of the Evangelists, and above of the Major Prophets whose predictions had reference to the three great events of our Lord’s life. The Kingston News of January 5th 1899, noting what was lost in the fire, said “The first thing that would strike the eye was the large stained glass window at the extreme end of the chancel. The design of the window was very beautiful representing various scripture scenes. The donor was named in an inscription which read somewhat as follows: “To the glory of God and in memory of John Watkins, who died June, 1876, aged 86 years. He was a benefactor to this church and city. Erected by his fellow-churchmen, 1881."

The window is one of a trio (#11, 13 and 14). They are linked by their structure and colour and by their orange frames, including the banners with inscriptions in the bottom borders. This window presents a group of three figures, one kneeling and facing away from the viewer, and two standing: all three are gazing at another group of three near the “outer” side of the window. The stone wall behind the Holy Family is echoed in the rocky hillside in #13. Further unifying symmetry is created by the large areas of deep ruby red and royal blue in the figures’ garments and by the iridescent glass representing marble in the tomb of #13 and the stairs of #11. The internal symmetry of #14, along with its repetition of a kneeling figure (Mary

Magdalene) and of the red, blue and green glass in garments would have formed part of the overall composition of the three windows in their original positions when #14 was between #11 and #13.

Window #12: Centre of the apse

Christus Rex 

(Christ the King, Christ in Majesty, Christ Triumphant or Christ in Glory)

This window was designed and executed by Peter Haworth in April 1942. This window is “A.M.D.G. and in loving memory of Arced McGowan and Ethelwyn McGowan. Given by their mother.” (A.M.D.G. : Ad maiorem Dei gloriam : To the greater glory of God). It was the intention of Mrs. McGowan that this window should be dedicated to her husband, but somewhere a mistake was made. Further, Ethelwyn was married, and the inscription was intended to carry her husband’s name, Macarow

In common with the other Haworth windows (#10 and 18), this window has a red cross on a gold ground in the upper right corner, a gold crown on a red ground in the upper left, and a green frame. The window is a highly symmetrical composition which depends not on a naturalistic representation but on symbolism. Thus, Christ’s death by crucifixion is presented as a scene of glorification: instead of a broken figure nailed to a cross, a crowned figure garbed in white and gold floats triumphantly before it. The cross itself is made of Pentecostal flames, signifying the power of the Holy Spirit, and behind it shines the sun; at the bottom of the window a set of concentric partial spheres alludes to the planetary spheres.

Window #13: 3rd from right in the apse

The Three Marys

This window was installed before 1913 to replace a window lost in the 1899 fire. The window is dedicated to John Watkins, “A Benefactor of this Church,” and a Warden of the original Blue Church, 1822-23. Watkins’ benefactions included both St. George’s and the Kingston General Hospital, where the central block of the building bears his name. It was executed by Edward Hobbs of London and Toronto, and is one of five of his windows in the Cathedral. The others are #1, 8, 11 and 14.

The window is one of a trio (#11, 13 and 14). They are linked by their structure and colour and by their orange frames, including the banners with inscriptions in the bottom borders. This window presents a group of three figures, one kneeling and facing away from the viewer, and two standing: all three are gazing at another group of three near the “outer” side of the window. The rocky hillside behind the angel is echoed in the stone wall in #11. Further unifying symmetry is created by the large areas of deep ruby red and royal blue in the figures’

garments and by the iridescent glass representing marble in the tomb of #13 and the stairs of #11. The internal symmetry of #14, along with its repetition of a kneeling figure (Mary Magdalene) and of the red, blue and green glass in garments would have formed part of the overall composition of the three windows in their original positions when #14 was between #11 and #13.

Window #14: 2nd from right in the apse

The Crucifixion

This window was installed before 1913 to replace a window lost in the 1899 fire. The window is dedicated to John Watkins, a Warden of the original Blue Church, 1822-23. Watkins’ benefactions included both St. George’s and the Kingston General Hospital, where the central block of the building bears his name. It was executed by Edward Hobbs of London and Toronto, and is one of five of his windows in the Cathedral. The others are #1, 8, 11 and 13.

The window is one of a trio (#11, 13 and 14). They are linked by their structure and colour and by their orange frames, including the banners with inscriptions in the bottom borders. The internal symmetry, along with its repetition of a kneeling figure (Mary Magdalene) and of the red, blue and green glass in the garments would have formed part of the overall composition of the three windows in their original positions. The blank panel at the bottom would have originally linked #11 (“In memory of John Watkins”) and #13 (“A Benefactor of this Church”).

Window #15: Extreme right of the apse

The Transfiguration

This window is dedicated “In memory of Caroline Lothrop Ladd beloved aunt of Dean Starr of this Cathedral at rest March 8 1913.”

The window depicts the moment just after three of Christ’s disciples, Peter, James and John, have had a vision of Christ flanked by Moses and Elijah, a vision which provides verification of Christ’s divinity (Matthew 17: 1-13).

Window #16: East Lady Chapel

The Institution of Holy Communion

This window was installed before 1913. It is dedicated “In memory of Colonel D. Norton-Taylor R.A. January 27 1901.” There is a plaque dedicated to his widow Harriett Liddell (1845-1916) in the south transept, under the RMC Gallery, and one next to it dedicated to another member of the family, Lieutenant Hugh Norton-Taylor (killed in action, 1916).

This is a round window, and in the centre Jesus blesses a chalice and offers it to the kneeling St. John. Surrounding that scene is a circular border with a design of bunches of grapes and grape leaves. In a roundel at the left centre of the border the Greek letters alpha and omega (Α and Ω) are superimposed. They are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet and represent Christ as the beginning and the end, the first and the last. This alludes to several places in the Book of Revelations (1:8, 21:6 and 22:13) where the letters are used to define the divinity of Christ. In a roundel at the right the letters I H S are superimposed representing in Roman form the Greek letters in an abbreviation of the name of Jesus. At the top of the circular space beyond the grape border is a banner containing the words “This is my blood of the New Testament which is shed for you and for many for the remission of sins.” These are Jesus’ words instituting the practice of Holy Communion as presented in the prayer of consecration in the Book of Common Prayer; they are a variant of the words in the Gospel of Matthew.

Window #17: South East Lady Chapel

The Road to Emmaeus

This window was installed on April 2, 1905 and is dedicated “To the Glory of God and in most loving memory of Roderick Crysler Carter August 22 1904.” He sat on the Finance Committee and was a Delegate to Synod.

The window shows two of Jesus’ followers on the road to Emmaeus meeting the resurrected Christ, whom they do not recognize (Luke 24: 13-35; Mark 16: 12-13). The lunette contains a classicizing design. The bottom of the window contains the quotation “Abide with us, for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent Luke XXIV 29”

Window #18: South West Lady Chapel

Mary Magdalen and the Risen Christ

This window was bequeathed by Thomas Carson in 1934, and was dedicated on June 2, 1935. It cost $950. It was designed by Peter Haworth and was his first of three windows here. It was executed by the Pringle and London firm of Toronto. It is dedicated “To the Glory of God and in memory of Robert Carson and his wife Sarah and their children. Erected by their son Thomas.” Robert Carson was a Warden of St. George’s in 1875, in 1885-86 and was then Rector’s Warden from 1912 to 1926. He was also on the Finance Committee and was a Delegate to Synod.

The window shows Mary Magdalene in the Garden of Gethsemane before the empty tomb (John 20: 11-17) The resurrected Christ appears to Mary and speaks the words in the top of the panel: “Touch me not, for I am not yet ascended to my Father.” In the lunette, the Lamb of God (Agnus Dei) appears with the banner of the resurrection. The lunette border contains an inscription from Psalm 73:20: “Like as a dream when one awaketh.” The remainder of that psalm verse refers to the awakening of the Lord. The border of the main panel shows Haworth’s signature red crosses and gold crowns, and the border of the lunette has a red cross. Perhaps the most striking feature of the window is its colour, particularly the blues. Haworth said he wanted the colour to be “decoratively symbolic and jewel-like in quality.”

Window #19: South East RMC Gallery

Saint George

This window was designed by Edward Low, then in his 50th year with Robert McCausland Ltd., and was installed in 1979. It cost $5600. It was bequeathed by “Audrey Ethel Rushbrook BA Sc P Eng 6 August 1920 24 September 1977” and is a memorial to herself.

The window shows St. George, and his banner extends out of the main panel and forms the lunette. The original design did not include a dragon. However, the Bishop, the Cathedral Architect and the Dean all felt that one should be included ‘beneath his feet to satisfy the mythology surrounding the life of this personage. The dragon need not be an excessive dragon- like figure, but more like a coiled serpent, whose head and tail-fin might replace and perhaps start and end where the red “socks” are presently shown at the base’. Thus St. George lost his socks and gained a dragon. St. George is one of the Church’s Soldier Saints. He is traditionally said to have been a Roman soldier in Cappadocia and to have been martyred during the persecutions of Diocletian in the early 4th century. George is the patron saint of, among other places, England, and the loyalist founders of this church probably chose him as their patron for that reason. The original instructions were ‘to make background as light as possible’ and this was most successfully achieved. The window reflects the military tradition of the Royal Military College Gallery.

Window #21: Centre of RMC Gallery

Saint Margaret

This window was dedicated in 2003. It was given “to the glory of God to celebrate the life of Margaret Hope (Driver) Cruickshank and her long association with the Cathedral Church of St. George given in thanksgiving by her sons David, John, Peter and their families 2003". Margaret Cruickshank has been attending St. George's since 1915, two years after she, aged 4, arrived with her mother Bessie and three older sisters, Grace, Bessie and Mercy to join her father Robert John who had arrived the year before. Robert John Driver sang in the Cathedral Choir for 25years, and her three sons all became boy choristers. Over the years, Margaret has given much service to St. George's, and was committed to the lunch programme for any years. She is one of Bishop Read's faithful “Little Flock” (see window 6).

This window also recognizes the dedication of another Margaret: St. Margaret of Scotland (ca. 1045-1093), the granddaughter of King Edmond Ironside of England. She was a leading voice in changes that affected the social as well as the spiritual lives of people in Scotland. After the invasion of the Normans in 1066, she was sent, with her sister and her brother (Edgar the Atheline) to Europe for safekeeping. They sailed from England, but a storm blew them ashore in Scotland, and that's where she stayed. She married the Scottish King Malcolm (Canmore) III, to whom she bore six children. She reformed him, re-organized the Church of Scotland, and increased the worship of God in the land. She was also instrumental in having the church in Iona rebuilt. People could bring their troubles to her and seek her help, and her charity is said to have been unbounded.

The window pictures St. Margaret, crowned, dressed in a white gown with purple sleeves, a red tunic with gold tassels as a fringe and a blue cape with a gold border and clasp, standing in a landscape. Behind her head is a white nimbus. Her head is turned slightly to her right, producing a profile, and her right hand is lifted in a gesture of blessing; in her left hand she holds a loaf of bread. Kneeling on the saint’s right a woman in purple, blue, rose, gold and yellow garments has a sorrowful look on her face and she lifts her hand in a begging gesture. On the other side a barefoot child in russet, rose and purple garments lifts both her hands in a similar gesture. In the background of the image appear mountains in shades of mauve, tan and grey-green against a sky in three shades of blue and blue-green. Some conifer-like trees appear in the grey-green. In the middle ground are deciduous trees in brighter greens as well as a river in pearl grey. In the foreground are low bushes and multicoloured clumps of flowers. High in the upper left corner (from the viewer’s point of view) fly two white doves.

Window #23: South West RMC Gallery

Saint Michael

This window was designed by Edward Low, then in his 50th year with Robert McCausland Ltd., and was installed in 1979. It cost $5600. It was bequeathed by Audrey Rushbrook. It is dedicated to “John Ernest Rushbrook D.C. (1878-1958) and his wife Alma Pepper (1883-1967), parents of Gordon, Audrey and Ruth.”

The window shows St. Michael whose wings extend from the main panel into the lunette. The border matches the King David window opposite. Michael the Archangel, called “one of the chief princes” in the vision of Daniel, returns as a leader of angel fighters in the Book of the Revelation. It is he who, in medieval legend, rescues the souls of the faithful from the devil and leads them into paradise. The original instructions were ‘to make background as light as possible’ and this was most successfully achieved. The window reflects the military tradition of the Royal Military College Gallery.

Window #24: South East Nave

Archangel Gabriel

This window was given by the Gildersleeve family, who lived in the limestone house opposite the Cathedral at the South West corner of King and Johnson Streets. It was installed in 1911, and is dedicated “To the memory of Lucretia Gildersleeve who died Febry. 3rd 1909.” She was the daughter of Henry and Sarah, and sister of Charles Fuller (window #5). The style of the lower panels suggests a McCausland window.

The monumental figure of the archangel fills the entire panel as he floats over the earth (a town is visible in the lower right-hand corner) with a rising sun behind him. He carries his valveless trumpet in one hand and in the other lilies, the flower traditionally associated with resurrection. The number of lilies (8) signifies eternity. Gabriel’s cope-like overgarment has various symbols of the created universe on its front border. The main panel is linked to its lunette and lower panels partly through the recurrence of a red floral patterned background.

In the lunette is the Lamb of God with the banner of the resurrection (also the banner of St. George). In the lower panels the architectural borders are like those in the opposite panels in window #3's frame. On the left is a ribbon inscribed with the dedication and on the right a ribbon inscribed with words from 1 Corinthians 15:52 “The trumpet shall sound and the dead shall be raised incorruptible.” In the bottom left corner of the lower right panel a small piece of salmon-coloured glass, inserted backwards and visible from the north aisle, carries the inscription “RY GILDERSLEEVE/GD 65 YEARS +/DIED NOV 17th/RS”. This piece was no doubt part of a pre-fire window memorialising Henry Gildersleeve, who died in 1851 in his 65th year - see window #3.

Window #25: South Centre Nave

Christ in the Temple

This window was given by William Dalton’s widow, and was installed in 1924, the last of the nave windows. It is dedicated “To the Glory of God and in loving memory of William Bartlett Dalton 1844-1922.” He was a local hardware businessman who lived opposite the Cathedral at 54 Johnson Street. He sat on the Finance Committee and was a Delegate to Synod. His son Charles was an organist in the Cathedral. It was designed and executed by the firm of Robert McCausland Ltd. of Toronto. They were instructed to create a ‘very rich and full’ window, with ‘strong handling throughout’ and ‘full tints in the white glass’. Mrs. Dalton also asked for a ‘large figure on one side and an adolescent figure (large) on the other’, though the window does not reflect this request. It is a more traditional representation of Christ in the Temple than Window #1. The young Jesus is surrounded by ten rabbis in prayer shawls, and by the scrolls of the law. Hebrew tradition is symbolized by a menorah, and law by the tablets of Moses. Mary and Joseph look on from the background.

The window responds to the facing one (#2) by the repetition of the figure of St. Paul in the right lower panel. In the left lower panel is St. John. Both hold the Book of God, responding to the Word of God in the north window. In the lunette is the inscription “Jesus increased in wisdom and stature and in favour with God and man” (Luke 2:52).

The emphasis on the Word of God in this window begins with Jesus as interpreter of the Word in the main panel and continues with St. Paul who interpreted the gospel to the gentiles and St. John whose gospel begins with references to the Word which is God and which is incarnate in Jesus Christ.

Window #26: South West Nave

Mary and Martha

Dedicated on Easter Sunday, March 30 1902, this window was given by the Alexander Gunn family “In Memoriam J. Kathleen Gunn August 2nd 1891” aged 21. Alexander Gunn had been a Postmaster of Kingston. The window probably replaced one lost in the fire of 1899 - see the plaque under window #1.

It is reputed to have been designed and executed by the Louis C. Tiffany Company of New York City, using their new technique for brighter windows (see the notes on the next page).

The main panel illustrates Jesus’ visit to Mary and Martha (Luke 10: 38-42). Martha’s busy activity - about which she complains - contrasts to the serenity with which Mary listens to Jesus. Poses and costumes reflect this. “But one thing is needful and Mary hath chosen that good part which shall not be taken away from her Luke X 49” is the quotation at the bottom of the panel, and this no doubt also refers to Kathleen.

The lunette is similar to the lunette in the opposite window, but this time the wreath

frames a seven pointed crown enclosing a cross with trefoil ends, a symbol of the glory of the kingdom of heaven.

Tiffany Windows

A traditional stained glass window is made from coloured glass sheets cut into appropriate shapes. H-shaped lead strips hold the glass. The glass is coloured during manufacture by the introduction of metals. The artist will also paint on details, using grey powdered glass. The paint is then fixed into the glass. The paint, however, does not let light through.

Louis Tiffany developed a technique of “cutting pieces of glass . . . to make up the design, then the leading” (in Tiffany’s case, actually copper) “was threaded around the glass” and the pieces soldered together. “This . . . skilled task . . . turned out to be much superior to the windows and mosaics which started with the outline in lead, the glass then being fixed into spaces . . . Metallic oxides were added in small amounts to the clear-glass formula to make coloured glass.”

Tiffany wanted to make “glass that would make it possible for the entire design of a window to be carried out by means of the colour in the glass itself. This meant that figures, their hands and faces, the folds of draperies, the shadows and lights on landscapes, must all be achieved without using any paint, etching or enamelling . . .

“(A) new glass was invented by Tiffany . . . given the name drapery glass because the sheets of coloured glass were styled to represent folds in textiles, with three-dimensional effect. Workmen moved heavy corrugated rollers over the molten glass, punching and pressing and pulling it about with tongs until the right kind of drape was obtained in varying degrees of translucency for the fine folds of gowns or the voluminous folds of curtains . . .

“Opalescent glass was widely used by Tiffany . . . (and) became a special characteristic . . . Later, Tiffany would be able to say: “By the aid of studies in chemistry and through years of experiments, I have found means to avoid the use of paints, etching or burning, or otherwise treating the surface of the glass so that now it is possible to produce figures in glass of which even the fleshtones are not superficially treated . . . ”

Quotations from: The Art of Louis Comfort Tiffany, Vivienne Couldrey, Wellfleet Press, 1989